By J B Good
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Additional info for A vocabulary and outlines of grammar of the Nitlakapamuk or Thompson tongue : the Indian language spoken between Yale, Lillooet, Cache Creek and Nicola Lake : together with a phonetic Chinook dictionary, adapted for use in the province of British Columbia
1 All nouns ending in the unstressed endings -el, -em, -en and -er This is a very large group: appels3 ‘apples’, bezems ‘brooms’, jongens ‘boys’, tafels ‘tables’, spijkers ‘nails’, wapens ‘weapons’ Exceptions: aderen4 ‘veins’, artikelen ‘articles’, christenen ‘christians’, engelen ‘angels’, maatregelen ‘measures’, middelen ‘means’, mosselen5 ‘mussels’, redenen ‘reasons’, wonderen ‘wonders’ Also nouns ending in the suffix -sel and compounds with -stel: verschijnselen ‘phenomena’, beginselen ‘principles’, opstellen ‘essays’, toestellen ‘appliances’ In older writings and more formal style nouns in this group are sometimes found with an -en ending (see footnote 3): appelen ‘apples’, wapenen ‘weapons’ The following nouns take on a new meaning when given an -en plural: hemelen heavens tafelen tablets (biblical) hemels canopies tafels tables (for food) hersenen brains (organ, food) vaderen forefathers6 hersens brains (food) vaders fathers letteren literature7 wateren waterways 3 The compound nouns aardappel ‘potato’ and sinaasappel ‘orange’ are commonly heard with both an -s and an -en plural.
G. e. g. hondeweer ‘awful weather’ (lit. ‘dog weather’), luizebaan ‘dreadful job’ (lit. ‘louse job’). g. Koninginnedag ‘Queen’s Birthday holiday’,8 zonneschijn ‘sunshine’. Trendy spellings There are a few more categories but these are the major ones. These rules may seem a little complicated but they amount to the following: if in doubt, always write -en- and you won’t often be wrong. More difficult for foreigners, but not for native-speakers, is knowing where a medial sound is required at all in such compounds, given that in English we simply put two nouns together, as the translations of the above examples illustrate.
G. )’. 1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111 staf staff staven10 weg road wegen bad bath baden bedrag amount bedragen bevel order bevelen blad leaf of a book bladen11 dak roof daken dal valley dalen gat hole gaten gebed prayer gebeden gebod commandment geboden gebrek failing gebreken glas glass glazen graf grave graven12 hol cave holen lot lottery ticket loten pad path paden13 schot shot schoten14 slot lock, castle sloten spel game spelen15 vat barrel vaten16 verbod prohibition verboden verdrag treaty verdragen Plural of nouns Neuter 10 Staven is also the plural of de staaf ‘stick’.
A vocabulary and outlines of grammar of the Nitlakapamuk or Thompson tongue : the Indian language spoken between Yale, Lillooet, Cache Creek and Nicola Lake : together with a phonetic Chinook dictionary, adapted for use in the province of British Columbia by J B Good
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