By Mark Lester

ISBN-10: 0071743332

ISBN-13: 9780071743334

Get keep watch over over these tough components of English grammar

Practice Makes excellent: complex English Grammar for ESL Learners is targeted on these grammar themes that will pose exact difficulties for you, specifically if English isn't your first language. since it objectives complex subject matters, you are going to quick 0 in on what holds you again from fluency. and prefer with the entire bestselling perform Makes excellent books, you could perform via workouts and toughen your knowledge.

The publication includes:
* 775 routines * services from Mark Lester, an ESL specialist in grammar who based the hugely revered ESL division on the collage of Hawaii. He authored the most well-liked university school room grammar within the kingdom
Topics contain: Noun plurals, Possessive nouns and private pronouns, Articles and quantifiers, Adjectives, Verb kinds and tenses, conversing approximately current time, speaking approximately earlier time, speaking approximately destiny time, Causative verbs, The passive, The constitution of adjective clauses, Restrictive and nonrestrictive adjective clauses, Gerunds, Infinitives, Noun clauses

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Extra info for Advanced English Grammar for ESL Learners (Practice Makes Perfect Series)

Example text

While these questions will be still open for Topicalization and Cleft Constructions 39 future research, it is worth pointing out some empirical issues concerning the predication relation in Japanese clefts. I will then present some speculation at the end of this subsection. Based on the analysis by Williams (1980), Browning (1987) discusses syntactic predication in null operator constructions in English. She assumes that a CP can function as a ‘complex predicate’ (Williams 1980) when it contains a predicate variable.

Moreover, the predicate has to satisfy a locality condition; the predicate and its subject must mutually c-command and no phrase can intervene between the two. While the presuppositional clause in a Japanese cleft conforms to (56), it does not seem to have a mutual c-command relation with its subject (a focus phrase) at least at S-structure. However, as argued by Heggie (1988) for English pseudoclefts, it might be possible that a presuppositional clause and a focus element establish a predication relation within a small clause at D-structure.

Importantly, our analysis readily accounts for the licensing of NPIs in cleft constructions, which is briefly introduced in Chapter 1; NPIs cannot occupy a focus position in cleft constructions, in contrast with pseudoclefts in English. The relevant example is repeated here as in (49)c and the corresponding simple and topicalized sentences are given in (49)a and (49)b respectively:32 (49) a Taroo-ga dono eiga-mo mi-nak-atta Taro-NOM any movie-also see-NEG-PAST ‘Taro didn’t see any movie’ Topicalization and Cleft Constructions 35 b* [Dono eiga(-mo)]i-wa, Taroo-ga ei mi-nak-atta movie(-also)-TOP Taro-NOM see-NEG-PAST any ‘*Any movie, Taro didn’t see’ c* [Taroo-ga ei mi-nak-atta -no] -wa [dono eiga-mo]i Taro-NOM see-NEG-PAST-NM-TOP any movie-also dat-ta COP-PAST ‘What Taro didn’t see was any movie’ (49)a is a simple sentence containing the NPI, dono eiga-mo ‘any moviealso’, which is licensed by the negative head, nak- ‘NEG’.

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Advanced English Grammar for ESL Learners (Practice Makes Perfect Series) by Mark Lester


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