By Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner

ISBN-10: 0521460247

ISBN-13: 9780521460248

Colleges of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of bugs are examples of 3-dimensional aggregation. masking either invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors examine this pervasive organic phenomenon via various disciplines, from physics to arithmetic to biology. the 1st part is dedicated to some of the tools, normally optical and acoustic, used to assemble 3-dimensional information over the years. the second one part makes a speciality of analytical tools used to quantify development, crew kinetics, and interindividual interactions in the workforce. The part on behavioral ecology and evolution bargains with the capabilities of aggregative habit from the viewpoint of an inherently egocentric person member. the ultimate part makes use of types to clarify how crew dynamics on the person point creates emergent development on the point of the crowd.

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Extra info for Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate

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However, many three-dimensional sensing methods assess state variables indirectly, and these data require considerable subsequent interpretation. To reconstruct the necessary three- or four-dimensional data set, inferences must be made by using the physical relationship of the measured property to the ultimate property that one is interested in measuring. For example, when X-rays are used to map the three-dimensional structure of internal organs, a procedure known as computerized tomography (CT), what is actually being measured is the X-ray absorption of electromagnetic radiation through biological tissue, which is proportional to atomic number.

4) allow corresponding images to be measured while the observer views a stereomodel. However, the observer must continually adjust the position of the left and right images because stereocomparators do not automatically maintain the stereomodel. The real advantage of stereocomparators is that by viewing a stereomodel, the observer can ensure that corresponding left and right images of every target are correctly correlated. Reliable correlation of target coordinates measured on a monocomparator, depending on the number and distribution of targets, can be a very difficult task.

Interested readers are directed to Ehrenberg (1979). In addition, for a general review of different methods, see Foote (1991). An interesting alternative approach to fish size estimation is to measure the Doppler spread of a narrow-band acoustic signal and relate this to tail beat velocity, which is in turn related to fish length. Holliday (1972, 1974) has also suggested a possible approach to fish identification through the use of wide-band sonar. Because each species has a characteristic size and shape of swim bladder, at a given body length, the frequency content of the reflection from a school of fish will be enhanced at the frequencies corresponding to the resonant frequencies of their swim bladders.

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