By Christopher L. B. Lavelle
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G. tumours. In both situations, disturbances in olfaction may be associated with taste dysfunction. Conclusions There is still much to be learned about how information on taste is transduced and coded in the nervous system. It is generally believed that cells in a taste bud or single peripheral taste fibre do not react exclusively to a single stimulus but rather to selected qualities of the stimulus. It is likely that branches of the facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves receive input from the receptor cells in the taste buds, which then pass to the rostral part of the solitary tract, where there is a second relay to the parabrachial nucleus of the pons, and a third relay to the ventrobasal complex of the thalamus.
The taste buds in the fungiform papillae are usually multiple, varying between one and eight, and may also contain specialized pressure, tactile and temperature receptors. They also contain both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres unrelated to the taste buds. 8 Over the posterior one-third of the tongue are the circumvallate papillae arranged in the V-shaped groove. These papillae are circular and 2-15 mm in diameter. These papillae are commonly elevated from the lingual surface, with the taste buds lying in the papillary and contra-papillary crypt surfaces.
Initiation of swallowing Although reference is often made to the 'swallowing centre', this is probably an oversimplification. It is likely that modulation of the processes of deglutition results from impulse activity in cranial nerves other than those intermittently associated with swallowing itself. For instance, salivatory preparation of the bolus cannot occur in the absence of cholinergic activity mediated through the peripheral and autonomie nervous systems. Also, the striated muscle mediating deglutition in the pharynx, cricopharyngeal sphincter and upper one-third of the oesophagus, are under the control of impulses originating in motor neurones of the corresponding cranial nerve nuclei, whereas the smooth musculatures associated with deglutition are innervated by cholinergic vagal preganglionic fibres that synapse with a plexus in the Nervous control of swallowing muscle itself, resulting in postganglionic release of acetylcholine.
Applied Oral Physiology by Christopher L. B. Lavelle
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