By Elizabeth Closs Traugott (Ed.), Bernd Heine (Ed.)

ISBN-10: 902722899X

ISBN-13: 9789027228994

The research of grammaticalization increases a couple of primary theoretical matters referring to the relation of langue and parole, creativity and automated coding, synchrony and diachrony, categoriality and continua, typological features and language-specific kinds, etc., and hence demanding situations a few of the simple tenets of 20th century linguistics.This two-volume paintings offers a couple of different theoretical viewpoints on grammaticalization and provides insights into the genesis, improvement, and association of grammatical different types in a few language world-wide, with specific consciousness to morphosyntactic and semantic-pragmatic issues.
The papers in quantity I are divided into sections, the 1st thinking about basic procedure, and the second one with problems with directionality. these in quantity II are divided into 5 sections: verbal constitution, argument constitution, subordination, modality, and a number of paths of grammaticalization.

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To summarize, then, we postulate the paths of development shown in Figure 1, and classify the parts of the continuum according to four semantic ages. Note that all of the grams we are classifying have future as a use, so that the ones with other uses as well actually occupy a stretch of the continuum rather than a single numbered position. 29 BACK TO THE F U T U R E FUTAGE 2 FUTAGE 1 FUTAGE 3 FUTAGE 4 obligation probability > intention > future > imperative desire ability > root possibility > future > possibility Figure 1 Stages of development and FUTAGE for modality senses FUTURE GRAMS FROM MOVEMENT VERBS In this section we assign FUTAGE values to the future grams in our database that derive from movement verbs.

DEGREE OF FORMAL GRAMMATICIZATION The GRAMCATS database contains a number of variables that are designed to indicate varying degrees of grammaticization of form. For present purposes, we have chosen to divide these variables into three groups: Those that are indicative of the degree of fusion with the verb which the gram has undergone (FUSION), those that are indicative of the extent to which the gram has lost its autonomy and become dependent (DEPENDENCE), and those that indicate the extent to which the gram's phonological bulk has been reduced (SHORTNESS).

As a case in which evidence for an explicit allative component is lacking for a come-derived future but the expected aspectual restriction seems to be in force, we may cite Tern, whose future is built on kɔni 'to come', inflected for agreement and for non-past (Present or Remote Future) tense, which is expressed by n-, the full expression being: [person/number + n + kɔni] [person/number + main verb]. Movement-derived futures do not provide the richness of semantic nuance that modality-derived futures do, and thus do not allow us the opportunity of making fine distinctions in semantic age.

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Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of Grammatical Markers by Elizabeth Closs Traugott (Ed.), Bernd Heine (Ed.)

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