By Claire Halpert
The strikingly unrestricted syntactic distribution of nouns in lots of Bantu languages usually ends up in proposals that syntactic case doesn't play an energetic function within the grammar of Bantu. This e-book bargains a special end that the foundation of Zulu that Bantu languages haven't just a process of structural case, but in addition a fancy process of morphological case that's equivalent to platforms present in languages like Icelandic. via evaluating the procedure of argument licensing present in Zulu to these present in extra prevalent languages, Halpert introduces a couple of insights onto the association of the grammar.
First, whereas this ebook argues in want of a case-licensing research of Zulu, it locates the positions the place case is assigned decrease within the clause than what's present in nominative-accusative languages. moreover, Zulu exhibits proof that case and contract are particular operations within the language, situated on diverse heads and working independently of one another. regardless of those unfamiliarities, there's proof that the timing relationships among operations replicate these present in different languages. moment, this booklet proposes a unique form of morphological case that serves to masks many structural licensing results in Zulu; the consequences of this situation are strange, Halpert argues that its life is predicted given the present typological photograph of case. ultimately, this booklet explores the implications of case and contract as dissociated operations, exhibiting that given this example, different strange houses of Bantu languages, equivalent to hyper-raising, are a typical consequence. This exploration yields the realization that many of the more odd homes of Bantu languages in truth outcome from small quantities of version to deeply established syntactic rules reminiscent of case, contract, and the EPP.
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Extra resources for Argument licensing and agreement
B. * Siphoi seems [ that ti will cook an egg. ] c. Siphoi seems [ ti to cook an egg. ] d. * It seems [ Sipho to cook an egg. ] In a language like Zulu, such an account cannot be adapted straightforwardly.
20. ’ Interestingly, speakers consistently translate fanele in this type of construction as meaning ‘worthy of’, suggesting that these are most likely control constructions and not raising. A-MOVEMENT AND PHI [ 39 ] “02_Halpert_c02” — 2015/8/24 — 14:44 — page 40 — #31 b. ’ We therefore have multiple ways to distinguish raising from the surfacesimilar control and copy-raising constructions. hough these constructions raise many questions of their own, I set them aside for the remainder of this discussion and simply conclude that these diferences help solidify the analysis of constructions like (50b) and (51b) as raising-to-subject.
He examples in (26b–c) show that the subject cannot follow the internal arguments. he example in (26d) shows that the rigidity in word order extends beyond the relative position of the subject: reordering of the internal arguments with respect to each other also yields ungrammaticality. To summarize, vP-internal subjects seem to require a rigid word order of subject > (indirect object) > direct object within vP. 5. his rigidity in word order of vP-internal arguments contrasts with the more lexible ordering of adjuncts with respect to the vP-internal subject that Buell (2009) reports.
Argument licensing and agreement by Claire Halpert
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