By Stefan Ihrig

ISBN-10: 0674368371

ISBN-13: 9780674368378

Early in his profession, Adolf Hitler took notion from Benito Mussolini, his senior colleague in fascism—this truth is well known. yet an both very important position version for Hitler and the Nazis has been virtually solely ignored: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founding father of glossy Turkey. Stefan Ihrig’s compelling presentation of this untold tale gives you to rewrite our realizing of the roots of Nazi ideology and strategy.

Hitler used to be deeply drawn to Turkish affairs after 1919. He not just sought after but in addition sought to mimic Atatürk’s radical building of a brand new state from the ashes of defeat in global battle I. Hitler and the Nazis watched heavily as Atatürk defied the Western powers to grab govt, and so they modeled the Munich Putsch to a wide measure on Atatürk’s uprising in Ankara. Hitler later remarked that during the political aftermath of the good struggle, Atatürk was once his grasp, he and Mussolini his students.

This used to be no fading fascination. because the Nazis struggled throughout the Twenties, Atatürk remained Hitler’s “star within the darkness,” his concept for remaking Germany alongside nationalist, secular, totalitarian, and ethnically unique traces. Nor did it break out Hitler’s become aware of how ruthlessly Turkish governments had handled Armenian and Greek minorities, whom influential Nazis without delay in comparison with German Jews. the hot Turkey, or not less than these facets of it that the Nazis selected to determine, turned a version for Hitler’s plans and desires within the years major as much as the invasion of Poland.

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Extra info for Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination

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Aber . . 131 When negotiations came to a standstill in early 1923 and the Ankara government rejected a fi rst draft of the Lausanne treaty, the German press was again jubilant. The “no from Ankara” was seen again as pathbreaking for world, and especially German, politics. An article in the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung titled “Ankara’s No” stressed again the parallelism of Turkey and Germany as well as the potential lessons from the Turkish tactics for the Germans. Its discussion of the “world-shaking no” concluded: The rejection of this insidious treaty, which served only the interests of those Western great powers party to the treaty, but not those of the Turkish nation, shall be a stimulus for us to persevere in our resistance and a consolation in most serious and dire times.

From Sèvres to Lausanne. Border changes in the Middle East in the wake of World War I. The projected borders of the never-implemented Treaty of Sèvres (1920) as well as the borders of the new Turkish Republic as defined by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923). Margaret Macmillan, Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World (New York: Random House, 2003), p. ”16 Other papers such as the Hamburger Courier and the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung followed suit, each featuring articles on Mustafa Kemal’s movement in the morning edition for August 18 and one in the evening edition.

Granted, sometimes, the item in question was a mere two-liner plus a headline, but the overall quantity itself is a significant indicator of the value attached to the topic. Items on Turkey often dominated the first page, and many of these articles consisted of an entire column or even half a page (Fig. 5). Thus, at least 2,200 articles, items, and reports in the Kreuzzeitung in a period of about four and a half years is by itself an extraordinarily large amount. It meant on average of at least one article per day or three articles per two days.

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